Hațeg Country Area description - Hațeg Country - Pădureni Land

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Hațeg Country Area description

Hațeg Country
The Hațeg Country, located in the northern counties of Gorj and Mehedinţi, over the Carpathians of Jiu and Retezat, is "like a huge pit in the foot of the Retezat Mountains. (…). Surrounded by the mountains, a pile of the oldest and purest Romanian life has grown and developed”. (Ion Conea, Clopodiva, Monografie, ed. Acad., București, 2009, pag.5).
Access to the Hațeg Country can be done through three "gates":
From the town of Simeria, on the Strei Valley;
From Banat, on the Bistro valley, passing through the Iron Gates of Transylvania;
From Petrosani, through the Merişor-Băniţa Pass.

From the ethnosociological and linguistic point of view, the Haţeg Country is more extensive, including the settlements on the Lower Stream Valley until it sheds it in Mureş, including the town of Călan.

Hațeg Country is one of the richest micro-regions in Romania in terms of cultural and natural heritage. Wherever you turn, the tourist goes to the path of some of the most important historical monuments in Romania (ancient ruins, medieval fortifications, churches and monasteries), rare plants and animals.
ls protected in nature reserves, and last but not least, the fossil dinosaurs found here, unique in the world.

Sections dedicated to each community include detailed information about local tourist attractions, and the Rural Life section details issues related to the non-material patrimony of the place.

However, we still point out from this page some important objectives of the Hateg Country.

Cultural Heritage Objectives:

Cultural Heritage Objectives:
Churches Historical Monument:
Church of "St. Prophet Elias Tesviteanul" in Baru
"Saint Nicholas" Church in Densus, sec. XIII
The Reformed Church in Peşteana, sec. XVI-XVII
The Romanian Church in the village of Răchitova, built in the 15th century,
The wooden church "The Descent of the Holy Spirit" in the village of Ponor, 18th century construction
The Orthodox Church in Şerel village, sec. XIX
Orthodox Church Ostrov, Râu de Mori, sec. XIII
Orthodox Church in Peșteana, sec. XIII
"St. Paraschiva Church" and "St. John the Baptist" Church in Clopotiva, sec. XVIII
The Church "Ascension of the Lord" in the village of Nucşoara, sec. XVIII
The Church "Descent of the Holy Spirit" from the village of Paros, construction of the sec. XV
Reformed Church in Râu Alb village, sec. XV
Church "Saints Athanasius and Cyril" in the village of Sălașul de Sus
The Germans Church in Sălașul de Sus, sec. XVIII
The Reformed Church Sântamaria Orlea, sec. XIII
"St. George" Church in Sînpetru, sec. XIII

Dacian and Roman archaeological sites:
Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa Colony
The Dacian Fortress from Băniţa

Fortresses / Castles / Fortifications
The cemetic fortress of Cândesti (Cetatea de Colţ), sec. XIV
Mălăieşti Citadel, Sălașul de Sus, sec. XIV
Nopcsa Castle is located in Săcel, sec. XIX
Kendeffy Castle, Sântamaria -Orlea, sec. XVIII
The medieval tower at Crivadia, sec. XIII
Răchitova Citadel, sec. XIV

Natural Heritage Objectives:
Retezat National Park, which spans the administrative territories of the communes: Pui, Râu de Mori, Sălașu de Sus.  The Geopark of the Dinosaurs - Hațeg Country, a member of the European Geoparks Network (EGN) and the Global Geoparks Network (GGN), extends to the territory of 10 communes of the 12 regions and the city of Hateg: Baru, Pui , Sălaşu de Sus, Sânămăria Orlea, Hateg, Toteşti, Râu de Mori, Sarmizegetusa, General Berthelot, Răchitova, Densuş.

Natural Reserves: Floodless Tail, Narcissus Meadows, Poieni Peak Horns, Bison Forest, geosites and sightings of the Geopark of Dinosaurs. Detailed information about natural patrimony, Geoparc programs and projects can be found on its website, http://www.hateggeoparc.ro

Geographic framework
The Hațeg Country is situated in Transylvania, at the crossing of this historical province with Banat and Oltenia. Strictly geographically, the Hateg Country overlaps the homonymous depression, bordered to the south by the Retezat Mountains, to the east and northeast, to the Sureanu Mountains, to the west by the Ţarcu Mountains and to the north by the Poiana Ruscă Mountains. Between these limits, the Land of Hateg corresponds to the upper basin of the Strei, having an east-west axis of about 50 km and a width of 30-35 km on the north-south axis. Overall, from a geographic point of view, the Haţeg Country covers about 1300 km2.
The region is drained by the rivers Strei, River Mare and Galbena, with their tributaries. The social and economic center of the region is the city of Hateg.

History
Prehistoric period
In the Bordu Mare cave, the haţegan Ohaba-Ponor village is one of the oldest human presence in Romania. These are some phalanx dated in the Middle Paleolithic (about 100,000-33,000 BC). Quartz tools and machined bone parts were also found here. A remarkable discovery was a fireplace of the same period. The inventory found inside and around it shows that a piece of food was prepared on fire.

The Dacian period
At the western border of the Haţeg Country there are the Iron Gates of Transylvania (the ancient Tapae), the place where the Roman armies entered and they defeated the Dacians. It was one of the bloodiest battles in entire series of wars in all the fighting between the two armies. On the Trajan's Column, Romans appear to be helped by Jupiter.

At the same time, it is the only scene where wounded Romanian soldiers appear, and Traian himself breaks his clothes to be used as bandages. After the victory, the Romans entered the Land of Hațeg and the first campaign of the 101-102 war ended.
It should be remarked that only in Tapae and Cioclovina-Ponorici were discovered Dacian fortifications, the Dacian defence fortifications.
The first one was about 2 km long and the closed the access the Haţeg Country on the Bistro Corridor. The second one, with a length of more than 2.5 km, closed the main access route from the Land of Hațeg to the Sarmizegetuse Regia area.

Roman period
After the Roman conquest of Dacia, they founded the capital of Dacia province, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, on the western border of the Haţeg country, on the territory of the present Sarmizegetusa (formerly Britonia). The territory of the Roman city covered virtually the entire Haţeg depression. The Roman metropolis was the nucleus of the Legion of Fourth Flavia Felix, stationed here probably at the end of the First Daco-Roman War (102).

Medieval period
After the Roman retreat in 271, for almost a thousand years, there are no written sources of history of the Land of Hateg. The historian Radu Popa appreciates that "alongside the other Romanian territories and perhaps even more than them, because of its history and its central geographical location, the Haţeg Land has undergone the main stages of historical development of the Daco-Roman and then Romanian society."
Other historians also believe that the Land of Haţeg was one of the "nurseries" in which the medieval Romanian society developed. Moreover, at Streisângeorgiu, now the district of Călan, in the area of influence of the Land of Haţeg, there is the oldest Romanian church dated in the first half of the 12th century.

The hypothetical limits of the Glad duchy indicate that it also included the Land of Hațeg.
The first documentary attestation of the Land of Haţeg (originally Terra Harszoc), dates only from 1247, he famous Diploma of the Knights Hospitaller, which states: "And we also allow half of all the incomes and benefits to be gathered on behalf of the King to the inhabitants living in Lytua, besides the land of Haţeg,with all that belongs to it, to be collected by the above mentioned house. "Thus, it is clear that at that time, the Land of Haţeg was part of the Lithuanian voivodship (Lytua Country) with the nucleus in northern Oltenia. It is to be assumed, given the phrase " with all that belongs to it" that this land has a privileged status within the Litovoi voivodeship.

Some authors believe that the legend of Transylvania's "dismantling" of Wallachia would be based on a move over the Carpathians of leading families in the Land of Hațeg Country. An argument in this regard is that the name Basarab, possibly of Cuman origin, of the founder of the first ruling dynesty in Greater Wallachia, is common in the Hateg Country in the 13th century.

The ruins of the citadel of Mălăieşti
The year 1247 marks the beginning of the separation of the Land of Hațeg (Țara Hațegului) from Litovian Voivodeship and its integration into the Hungarian Kingdom. The process is not entirely peaceful. Thus, in 1277, a voivode called Litovoi (the same as that of 1247 or his successor) opposes armed resistance to the Hungarian King in Hateg. The voivode dies and his brother, Bărbat, falls captive, and he is redeemed with the price of paying a tribute to the Hungarian crown..
These events have remained in the memory of the places to this day, proof being the name of the Râu Barbat village in the Land of Haţeg.
In the 13th-15th centuries, the process of integrating the Land of Haţeg into the Kingdom of Hungary is completed, and the power is exercised in the name of the King by the Hațeg castle chatelaine, who sometimes was one and the same person with the Transylvanian vice voivode.
GPS coordinates of communes:
    
Bănița  45°28'13.33"N,  23°15'10.60"E
Baru  45°28'15.82"N,  23°10'1.98"E
Bretea Română  45°39'40.06"N,  23° 0'58.73"E
Densuș  45°34'47.77"N,  22°47'18.69"E
General Berthelot  45°36'38.98"N,  22°53'10.66"E
Pui  45°30'52.34"N,  23° 5'35.30"E
Răchitova  45°36'22.54"N,  22°44'47.70"E
Râu de Mori  45°29'47.53"N,  22°51'15.20"E
Sălașu de Sus  45°30'37.66"N,  22°57'10.07"E
Sântamărie Orlea  45°35'19.72"N,  22°58'12.12"E
Sarmisegetusa  45°30'50.88"N,  22°46'56.48"E
Totești  45°34'27.46"N,  22°53'9.06"E
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