General information about Sarmizegetusa - Hațeg Country - Pădureni Land

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General information about Sarmizegetusa

Hațeg Country > Sarmizegetusa
Location: 45°30'50.88"N,  22°46'56.48"E
Sarmizegetusa is a commune in Hunedoara County, Transylvania, Romania, composed of villages Breazova, Hobiţa-Gradiste, Păucineşti Sarmizegetusa (residence) and Zeicani.
Sarmizegetusa commune is located in the southwestern part of Hunedoara County, 65 km away from Deva, 17 km from Hateg, on DN 68.
Sarmizegetusa borders in the north with common Densus, in south-east with Râu de Mori commune and the southwestern Caraș Severin county in.
Sarmizegetusa village consists of several villages namely Sarmizegetusa Breazova, Hobița - Grădiște, Păucineşti, Zeicani.

Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Sarmizegetusa Dacian - the capital of Roman Dacia - stands at the foothills Retezat, in the south-west of the country Hategului today.The town is located 8 km from the pass between Banat and Transylvania, named in ancient times Tapae, and today Iron Gates of Transylvania.

It is not known precisely when the capital was founded. An inscription discovered at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the village Gradiste - Sarmizegetusa says: "By order of the Emperor Cesar Nerva Traianus Augustus, son of the divine Nerva, was settled the Dacian Colony by Decimus Terentius Scaurianus, governor". The name of the province's governor shows that the founding of the new city took place in the early years after the conquest of Dacia (after some views 106-107, among others between 108 -110).
The founding of the colony was also marked by the coinage (sestertius) issued in Rome, at the order of the Senate, dedicated to "the best prince" - Emperor Trajan. The choice by Emperor Traian of the place for the city that would bear his name was not accidental.
By setting up the metropolis it enjoys certain strategic and economic advantages. The Retezat Mountains in the south and Poiana Ruscai Mountains to the north constituted natural barriers that could hardly be traversed by potential attackers. The capital whose territorium stretched from Tibiscum to Micia until Jiu's entry into the gorge was quietly developed, protected by the Tibiscum (now Jupa), Voislova, Micia (Veţel) and Bumbesti castles. Ulpia Traiana passed the imperial road that came from the Danube and connected with the northern extremity of the province to Porolissum (Moigrad).

The ancient city closed an area surrounded by walls of approximately 32 hectares. In the heart of the city intersected the two main roads (north-south oriented cardo-maximus and decumanus maximus oriented east-west), at their intersection being the main public construction - Foros. The city did not restrict itself to the territory surrounded by walls. Beyond the walls, on a large expanse, there were houses (villae), handicraft workshops (bricklayers, glassmakers), temples and other public or private buildings. Also outside the walls were the cemeteries of the city (sepulcreta) identified both east and west of the premises. Its population could range from 25,000 to 30,000 people.

Through the endeavors of the archaeologists, Ulpia Traiana's old buildings and facilities, as well as numerous objects of current use, which are housed in the museum near the site, have been brought to light.
Relief, climate, flora, fauna

The relief
The main feature of Sarmizegetusa's relief is the variety, it is a hill and mountain area, wooded with essences of beech, oak, hornbeam, resinous essences.

On the territory of Sarmizegetusa, the climate is temperate continental, generally mild, humid and moderate.
The average monthly temperature is similar to the average annual temperature of 7.5 ° C, the lowest values ​​being registered in January and the highest in July.

Atmospheric precipitation falls throughout the year. The annual amount of water is on average between 20 and 40 liters per square meter.
The winds that pass through the commune come from the western direction.

Elements of biogeography (flora and fauna)
The flora of the locality is central-European, with arcto-alpine elements, in the high parts of the mountains and Mediterranean infiltrations in the sheltered places and with suitable ecological conditions, like the limestone formations.

Around the locality predominates both the southern slopes and the northern slopes of beech forests, which in some places vegetate with other wood species: fir, spruce, pine, mountain maple, ash, hornbeam, birch forming larger clusters in the lower part of the beech forest.

Besides domestic animals and cultivated plants, wild animals live in our commune.
All wild animals and water living on the territory of the commune: Wolves, foxes, boars, deer, rabbits, wizards, ferrets, weasel, mole, hedgehog, bat, squirrel, mouse.

Also on the territory of the commune are: reptiles such as: snake, lizard, batracieni that frog, broom and salamander, insects such as wasp, bee, ant, beetle.
Fish: The waters of the valleys conceal a wide variety of fish such as marsh, cob, clean, carp.

A great wealth of the commune is formed by the forests. They occupy an area of ​​2594 Ha, consisting of hardwoods, ie species such as beech, oak, hornbeam, birch and resinous like pin, spruce, fir.
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