Since the feudal era, they have been the main means of capitalizing on agricultural and pastoral products. The most important fairs were held in Dobra, Hunedoara, Hațeg, Ilia and Pui, on Saturday. The big fairs were events of great importance to which people came dressed in a feast, being appreciated as special moments of socializing with those in the country and neighboring lands.
Cattle, horses, sheep, lambs, pigs, birds, but also firewood and food, such as cheese, curd, were sold at cattle markets. At merchandise fairs, the products of sheep, cheese, curd, forest fruits and cobbles were sold, such as jewelery for clothing, headgear, beads, needles, mirrors, leather products such as harnesses, belts and snakes, agricultural tools, household items and others.
The exchange of goods carried out on this occasion is realized through the sale of pastoral products and animals and the purchase of cereals, especially wheat and corn.
The fairs were negotiated by parents and marriages among young people, sometimes even if they did not know each other.
Weekly fairs are still being made today for the purchase of food in particular. Before all big holidays over the year, occasional fairs are held in different localities. At Stretenie (2 February), in Hațeg and Pui, on the Florii Celebration there is a large animal fair in Hațeg, (May 1), Pui, on the Rusalii Celebration and Sf. Maria (August 15), and Sf. Maria Mică (September 8) in more settlements, and by St. Dumitru (October 26), in Călan.
II.Forms of intra-Community socialization
They were, in the past, places for working, telling stories, songs and places for dance, the main means of transmitting literary and musical folklore from one generation to the next.
Even if today they are no longer there, there is an interest in reinvigorating this custom at the Orlea Sântamărie.
The sessions were held in the neighborhoods, in each village, especially in winter, in November, two weeks before leaving the post, and kept until the end of February at Sântoaderi when the fieldwork began.
The main purpose of the seated was to spin of the hemp and the wool, which was to be completed with the week-end of the Sântoaderi, when the weaving of the cloth began. The Sântoaderi Weeks began on the first Tuesday of Easter and ended Wednesday, the next week. The popular beliefs said that if the girls or wives were tortured the evening, they would be felt by Sintoader, a mythical goddess, horse-riding, vengeful for those who did not respect the hemp torso calendar.
During the winter, the sessions were held on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays after dinner and often lasted until midnight.
While the girls and women were spinning the whool or hemp, stories were told, songs were singing, and more by midnight the boys and the musicians came to conclude the games, the opportunity for the boys to pay court to the loved ones.
It is a traditional form of helping that is practiced today.
There was a clacă to the construction of the houses, to their wrapping with straw, to important household chores, such as mowing, harvesting, harvesting and wood transport etc.
Women who had a lot of spinning hemp and knew they could not finish until Sântoader were wearing caiere
on the hair for the girls who agreed to help them. Before the deadline, the helpers met with the woman who gave them the work, and they rewarded them with a boar or hot pie. She also invited a musician, and the evening continued with play and good pleasure.
Clothes are organized according to the principle of reciprocity. The one who was helped, for example, to build the house, will turn to the one who helped him. Sometimes people, especially widows, were helped, without any reward being expected in this case.
It was the main occasion for relaxation and socialization after a busy week. The game was also known and the young couples approached the marriage. The playgrounds could be the crossroads between the streets, the courtyards of wealthy villagers, and later, the village shop, the canopy where drinks and food could be served.
After 1950 there were built cultural homes in the villages, where the games on Sunday were held. This Sunday celebration has been dropped today in some places due to the fact that there are not enough young people to organize the event and in others because of the spread of discos, frequented by young people, especially during the summer holidays.
In the Hațeg Country, the specific games of the area are called: Hora, Danțul, Ardeleana, Pe picior, Cârligul, Brâul, and in Pădureni Land there are played the Jocul de doi, Brâul pădurenesc, Spicul de grâu and Ardeleana. During the games the young men were shouting.
In most cases, only one lager, a batter or a fluier played. In Pădureni, the music was accompanied by the metallic rhythm of women's ornaments worn at the waist.
To the most important festivities, such as weddings Gypsy fiddle groups from Făget or Caransebes were invited.
It is the main feast, as well for the community as for the family, which is preserved until today. It does not take place at the patronage of the church, as in the villages of Banat County, although it contains important religious moments in its course.
They take place during the summer period, one at a time in all the villages of Pădureni and Hațeg area. Most of the Nedei are held at Pentecost, a holiday called Duminica Mare
The event gathers all family members no matter how far they have gone.
In the Hațeg Country, the feast is as follows:
In the morning Mom is near the fireplace and prepares food. Then the entire family goes to the church with colaci
, candles, incense, and vinary of the feast. After the service, the family and guests go home and start the gostit
(meal service). During the meal, they toasts such as: God help us, God give you health, etc. After eating, it goes to the place of the party in the field where it is dance time until dark. In addition to fiddlers, in the field sweet cakes, candy and souvenirs are offered. In the evening the big dinner follows
, after which the elders lie down and the youth go to play and dance until dawn.
In Pădureni Land, in the morning, all the inhabitants of the village go to the church, where they participate in the Sacred Liturgy, after which, together with the priest, they go to groups in the countryside. On the road they sing the Song of the Cross until they reach the trot or cross at the head of the lot, where the priest sanctifies the water with which he sprinkles the cross and the fields. The song of the cross expresses the godliness of the villagers to the symbol of the Crucifixion of Jesus:
Forgive Cross, forgive dear,
That we are wearing you through the garden,
Through the smell of flowers,
And through the wheat hold.
After the religious ritual, the villagers play the brâul. Then follows the uratul colacilor that honor the guests present. Women adorn the church's banners with hazelnut flowers and wheat flowers. The girls pick up the vessel with holy water and soak up the fields to protect them from storms, rains or attacking insects, as well as the attack of wild animals.
After the meal, the entire village community, together with the guests, takes part in the Sunday Game, which takes place on the big street of the village, and today at the Cultural House.
III. Secular and Religious Feasts
Ianuarie 1th. Anul Nou (Crăciunul mic). Sf. Vasile cel Mare (Sânvăsâiu)
On the night of Sf. Vasile cel Mare - St. Basil, when the beginning of the new calendar year was celebrated, the custom of gate change took place. These are the shy young boys, who do not dare to declare love to their beloved girl. Some young men, who knew the feelings of shyness, pulled out his gate from his chest and led her to the girl's yard loved by him. The next day, the young man found his gate in the girl's yard, and so he had to confess his feelings. Habit is still practiced today as a mischievous joke, but it does not know its symbolic meanings. The gates are taken out and thrown to the edge of the village, or they are hiding, so that it is difficult to find by the injured.
On 1 of January, Christians celebrate Sf. Vasile cel Mare. In the church is held the Liturgy of Sf. Vasile cel Mare , which is believed to bring health and abundance. The whole family is participating in this liturgy.
Lunch repeats the New Year's menu.
In the afternoon, as in the next two days, parties and popular games take place.
The youngsters are practicing the rituals of guessing the faith judging by the girls' gestures. Also on this day was the animals' waking, a practice that aimed to increase their fertility. The girls fed animals with roasted seeds to get fruit.
January 5th. Day of the Cross. The episode of the Epiphany.
The priest comes to the houses of men and sanctifies the house and the animals. It is rewarded with money.
January 6th. God's Christening. Godlike appearance. (Epiphany).
The church celebrates the water sanctification class - Aghiazma Mare, which is shared with Christians and is preserved throughout the year. From this water consumes those who are sick for health over the years.
During the Liturgy, the animals are kept in the yard.
On the Epiphany night the girls put basil under the pillow and say a prayer at bedtime. They will dream their destiny at night.
The day celebrates the Christmas and New Year holidays. Parties are organized and celebrities are named Ion, or Ioana. Playing in the cultural home.
During January 1-6, no laundry is washed, only urgent work is done: feeding and watering the animals and cooking food for the family.
This day marks the middle of winter. The day is also called the Squirrel of Wolves.
The day before Sântion, at the Epiphany, the women in the Padureni area prepare Sântion's Puppy, a branch of apple tree with three branches that binds apples, pears, plums, bacon and a few spice of wheat from the crown made at the end of the harvest, a Hat, cloth, beads, headboard and two candles. When the priest comes with the baptism, the candles light up, the cross kisses, and the doll is handed to each family member to hold it at the moment of kissing the cross. It is a ritual of fertility and health.
Ianuarie 30th. Sfinţii ierarhi Vasile cel Mare, Grigore şi Ioan. Trisfetitele.
February 2th: Lord's Prayer (Strecenia, Winter Martinias). This day is not working, so that people and animals do not suffer from wolves. On this day, it is believed that if the sun is out and the bear coming out of the lair is seeing its shadow, it is still another 40 days of hard winter. Do not take the cattle out of the stable and rub off the garbage.
March 1th. The day of Baba Dochia.
Between 1 and 9 March are the Baba' days, recognized for the unstable and capricious weather. Baba Dochia is an ancient goddess with maternal, meteorological and agrarian attributes. She personifies the old year that dies on March 9, when the new agrarian year begins. On this day, martenziers, white and red silk woven ropes (white - the symbol of winter and red, the symbol of summer) are offered. These ties hang small talismans, good luck: basketball, horseshoe, penny, hearts, popcorn, etc. Now it's the water of love (melted snow) with which the girls wash their face to be beautiful. Put your hand on snake, for health.
March 9th. Sf. 40 de Mucenici from Sevastia (Sâmţii).
On this day, small colaps of sweet dough, pups, honey are added, and honey is distributed to the neighbors, relatives, for the good agrarian and health. There are fires with rags, which the housewife has surrounded the households three times in order to keep her from the attack of the venomous snakes. It resembles the tanks and the trumpets. The trees are made of rags from the cloths and snakes.
March 25th. Bunavestire (Blagoveştenia).
And on this day there are fires, by burning garbage, to keep men and animals from the snakes' bite.
April 23th. Sfântul Gheorghe (Sângeorz).
St. George is the patron of the farmers, the shepherds and the craftsmen. The evening before, they put on the window shutters and stables, sprouting shoots, green lovage, thorn bush and thorns. In the evening, the udder of the lambs is anointed with chopped lovage mixed with lard, to protect their milk from the milk ghosts. In order not to let the wolves to take their lambs, the shepherds give one lamb to a member of the village or the family, to be given to the wolves so that the wolves will not kill the rest of the flock. The sheep were milked for the first time, and a pot cheese was made, of which one half was eaten and the other half was donated. In the afternoon the girls were made wet, in the desire to be a rich year.
All day, a glass of water is drunk in the morning, on an empty stomach, and bread is made with butter. It is the month of the flowers and of the first ripe fruit.
From the first cherries of May, strawberries and other fruits are divided into the poor, the souls of the dead, so that in the next year it will be rich fruit.
May 1th. Armindenu
In the folk tradition, the Maialul (spring arrival) is celebrated, family field parties are organized. Because on this day is celebrated the International Labor Day and it is a non-working day, the field parties continue until today.
Arminden symbolizes the spring victory. It is the day of St. Prophet Jeremiah, from where comes the name of Arminden, which is given to a branch of beech, ash or birch, which is placed in the door of the house, with a cross made of green branches. In the forest of Hunedoara, the top of the arm-donkey is put on a bag of grass mixed with herbs, which is then kept in the yard's bridge, where the cow's udder is anointed when it is dry summer to not be bitten by the crows.
May 21th. Sfinţii Împăraţi Constantin and Elena.
The Holy Emperors Constantine and Helen, are celebrating those who bear these names.
June 15th. The last day before the fasting begins for Apostles Peter and Paul.
June 24 th. The Birth of Saint John the Baptist (Sânzienele).
Eating of Fish.
The feast takes place at the summer solstice, when the fields start ripening.
Forgiven women, along with other healing herbs, such as amber, pick the Lady’s bedstraw, which is now blooming. With selected and dried Lady's bedstraw fumigations are made, when someone in the family becomes ill.
June 9th. The saints magnify the Apostles Peter and Paul. The Saints of Sanpetru.
A funeral feast is held for the dead of Sânpetru, with apricots and cherries of June.
June 29th. The Holy Apostles Patru and Pavel (Sânpetru).
At this day, which might be ominous for cattle, nobody is working.
Iulie . "Cuptor".
July 20th. The Holy Prophet Elias the Tesvitan. Santilia.
In the folk tradition Sântilie is the owner of lightning and thunderbolt. They do not work to remove drought, hail, lightning, thunderbolt, storm and cold. From this day on there is no risk of hail. They choose the rams from the flock and bring them to the ram herder.
July 31th. Last day before the fasting, for St. Mary.
August 6th. Schimbarea la Faţă (Probejenia, Day of the Sun).
In the village of Ruda, in Ghelari, girls and women gather field flowers from which they make crowns. A pair of children, a boy and a girl, called brides, are chosen, and two crowns are placed on their heads. It seems that habit is a reminiscence of an ancient solar cult.
Leaving of the first migratory birds: the herons. It is believed that the one who has headaches this day will have the whole year.
August 15th. Dormition of the Virgin Mary. (Sainte Marie Mare.)
Pilgrimages to the Prislop Monastery, where hieromonk Arsenie Boca, the third founder of the monastery and the holy one loved by all the inhabitants of the Land of Haţeg and the Hunedoara Forests, is resting.
The names of Mary, Marin, or similar versions of this name are celebrated that day. It is marking an annual threshold. It is said that on St. Mary's one is replacing one’s hat with a beanie. They pick: basil, hazelnut, all the healing and incantatory flowers. The elm, from which string to bind the sheaf is peeled.
August 29th. The cutting of the head of St. John the Baptist prophet. Holy Theodora. (Day of fasting).
The fast begins until September 14 at the Ascension of the Holy Cross.
On this day it is not good to sow or cut something with the knife or other cutter object. Bread is broken by hand.
There is a risk that colds may start right now.
September 8th. The birth of Mary the Virgin. Holy Mary Little.
No special ritual practices are known for this day.
The swallows are leaving.
September 14th. Ascension of the Cross. Great Cross.
Day of celebration. Nonworking day. The fasting is over.
“Sheep Wedding”. The rams are released into the sheep for propagation. Before that the sheep are cleaned with fire and water.
14th. The Holy Paraschiva.
it ends the summer.
26th. The Great Martyr Dimitrios, source of myrrh (Sânmedru.)
this day, agrarian calendar marks the beginning of winter. They cut
the mane of young horses up to three years to grow more beautiful.
Popular beliefs say that from now exists the danger that if you die
you become a vampire, ghost or werewolf.
night, the fires of Sânmedru, which preserve the children with
purification and health, were made. Peasants gathered in orchards to
enhance their fruit. Feasts for the dead are made.
is the term when the Sângiorz agreements on the shepherd and the
turn for milk are concluded.
pastoral year ends. The sheep are brought into the winter stab.
8th. The Archangel Michael and Gavriil and all heavenly powers
celebrate the day of those bearing these names or their derivations.
Mică was kept only in some villages (Dăbâca). In the first part of
the day the dioceses went with the cross through the village. At
lunch there is a big meal in the family, and in the afternoon there
is a big game in the middle of the village. The women bring for the
bacon, cheese and smoked meat.
30. St. Apostle Andrew, the first called. Protector of Romania. (Day
of the Wolf).
the Pădureni region and the Haţeg Basin, the feast is especially
reserved for sheep, in order to avoid the wolves' attacks. A sheep is
cut and cut into four, then taken to the woods, in a place where the
wolves pass, and they are offered this sheep, not to attack the
6th. St. Hierarch Nicholas, the Archbishop of the Bridegroom of
Lichy. (San Nicoara).
is believed that in San Nicoara the day begins to rise as the cock
crows from the door.
Sân Nicoară comes on a white horse, means snow arrives, then, it is
believed that the winter will be heavy until St. John (January 7).
middle of Christmas.
with St. Nicholas Day, Christmas preparations are getting bigger.
Carols’ singers prepare their repertoire and scenario. Families
start cleaning houses, courts andbelongings.
are those who are called Nicholas, Niculina or similar.
this day Christmas pigs are cut. Lard is made of it. Spells and
incantations are made.
is believed that who sees blood at Ignat will be free of illness. The
blood escaped from the throat of the stabbed pig mixes with millet,
then is dried, crushed and preserved, and is used to smoke infected
children with cold or fears.
this day nobody spins, weaves or washes clothes.
this day, as on the eve of Christmas, women give alms to the poor, in
order to have what they are celebrating the great feast. Collars,
flesh, sausages, bacon, pitchers, apples, and nuts were prepared for
24th. Christmas Eve.
the afternoon before Christmas, children gathering in groups, called
pizers, and going from home to home to announce the coming of
Christmas. Pietyreii are well received, being considered good luck,
wealth and health. Their wishes have this content:
roaring of the blade of lads
the evenings, the cartoons of young men - the mobs of the juniors -
are taking place. They are also led by a boss. They also include a
deer mask that plays a dance after a specific rhythm of the oak. The
carols follow a well-defined route. Start with the mayor, then the
priest, the teacher, the notary, and then go from home to home. There
are carols for the mayor, for the notary, for the married girl, for
the hosts, cosmogonic carols and religious carols, etc. The caroling
starts from the street, at the window, where people have a candle
lit. Here is the window carriage. Then the host opens the gate and
receives the carols. At the end of their carols, they play with the
host's girls. On all the way, the carols’ singers knock out of the
pipes and make noises, crack the whips. The legs are ringing the bell
while walking. Noise, it is appreciated that it casts out evil
spirits during this period of winter solstice. They are also donated
with money, cola, cake, sausage, brandy and wine.
the second half of the 20th century Romanians adopted the tradition
of the fir tree, a custom taken from the Germans.
25th. Birth of the Lord (Christmas)
most important day of the religious calendar after Easter, Christmas,
is celebrated in the family. In the morning, all family members go to
the church and participate in the Divine Liturgy, then return home,
where they serve pre-cooked dishes. The Christmas plate includes
pork, soup, sarmale, pork steaks with potato purée and cakes. Before
dinner they drink brandy and, besides the steak, they drink wine.
the afternoon, the family rests, and in the evening a family party
Feast lasts for three days.
- Holidays with variable date
holidays have been variable, being related to the day when the most
important feast of the year is set:
resurrection or Easter. The variable date of the feast is conditioned
by the method of calculation established by the Christian Orthodox
Church, the first Sunday after the moon full of spring echinocity.
These events begin at the end of the fasting and end at Pentecost.
secului (last day before fasting) has taken place on many different
dates. The period starts seven weeks before Easter and takes two
week of Sântoader's horses (Sântoaderu).
begins on the first Tuesday of Easter Fasting and ends on Wednesday
the following week. It overlaps the week that is called the White
Week (of Cheese) in the Christian calendar. That is why in these days
there are no “şezători” evening
sittings of village women,
the girls and the women are locked in the house and overturning the
pots upside down in order not to enter into them the demonic spirits
large group of boys, almost 100, coming from four, five villages
gather in a clearing, where they make a big fire and dance around it
until the dawn, when they set off on the hillside looking for wood
branches suitable for making yoke bolts, whips, forks, reeling
devices and other tools. Girls also start by the meadow to gather
herbs: ivy, grass of the wind, iarba spurcului, bryony. When they
take the first grass out of the ground, they put a ring instead
called hoopoe and say: I gave you a ring, for you to be my cure.
end the boys meet again, make one, two games, and go home, where they
put the ivy root to boil, so the girls wash their head with it. The
other herbs are placed in the beam and used for fumigation when
someone in the family got sick.
the Friday of Sântoader, the roots of large grass, which are placed
in the girls' baths, are gathered. Before removing the roots check
the place to avoid tossing of hens and cleaning them.
in Pădureni and Haţeg the most important ritual of Sântoader's day
is to accompany the girls, which took place beneath a fruitful apple
tree in the court or garden. Each girl brought from her home a ring,
called a wood pea, which she clung to the tree, then gathered in a
circle around it, tie their tails from one to the other, and spoke
they shook the apple tree until all the rings fell down, pulling off
their tails and squeezing the rings, breaking off one piece of it and
offering it to the one they wanted to accompany.
exchanging the rings with the boys they could call themselves blossom
friends. After the root was removed, salt, wheat and flour were put
into the pit.
two weeks before Easter, flowers are picked.
before the Sunday of Flowers it is the Saturday of Lazarus. The dead
are mentioned in the church.
Sunday. The Lord's Entrance in Jerusalem.
the church, after the Divine Liturgy, willow branches are divided,
with which, at home, the man ritually hits all members of the family,
depending on the age, in turn, from the oldest to the youngest, then
surrounds the house , the courtyard and the garden, strikes with the
creanga and animals and trees, for health and abundance. Then he puts
willow branches, made crowns, to icons, and keeps them for a year
when they will be replaced with new ones.
remove the clothes in the yard for air. The girls wash their heads
with scalded water to get rich hair.
Week, Passion Week.
a week of great austerity. The whole family keeps fasting and
praying. They all confess and share, after asking for forgiveness
from those whom they upset.
the evening, at the Church, they are knocking on the heap, which
announces the closeness of the great Easter holiday and the evening
service, the Denials, the most important of which is on the Holy
Thursday, when 12 Gospels are read, for it is the day of the Lord's
Judgment and Good Friday when it is taken to the church the grave of
the Lord, and the Lord's Proclaim. On Good Friday, Christians circle
the church with lit candles. From now on, the bells of the church are
not firing until the moment of the Lord's Resurrection. Instead, beat
are prohibitions on this day for a number of activities. In the
evening, the ritual of the Shouting on the village, called in
Pădureni Ali Molii, took place, and in Haţeg, the Riding of the
Loaves or Arimori.
habit consisted of the formation of two groups of young people
gathering in two places at the edge of the village, bringing with
them straw ham and old car wheels. The following dialogues took place
between the two groups.
the first one called out the laughing ladies who did not end the hemp
torso, or the names of those who cheated their mate, husband or wife,
and other reprehensible facts.
followed the rolling of wheels with straw hammocks between spirals,
in the valley, to purify the space.
Friday is a black day and of intense prayers. Cossacks and Pasca are
before Easter, fires for ancestors lit again.
the lamb steak, stalk, soup and other dishes, chopsticks and
of the Lord's Resurrection. Easter.
whole family, dressed in new clothes, goes to church midnight to
attend the Lord's Resurrection Service,
essential element of the celebration is the consumption of Easter,
the old shrine which was once prepared for scraping and brought to
the church, where the men cut it in the squares and sprinkled it with
wine. Now the shrimp is made to order, baked, then sprinkled with
wine, put in a large pot, from which a man offers at the end of the
Liturgy of the Resurrection to all those present to consume. Only
those who are sick and the elders do not come to the church. For
them, Easter is brought by another family member.
the courtyard of the church, the villagers collide between them red
eggs, saying Christ the Risen and True Risen.
here they come back with the lighted candles that they keep all year
long, and illuminate them in case of sickness or trouble, when they
Easter, the Easter table is arranged, because it has to be full of
food all night long. It is made of red eggs, ham, ham, bacon, lamb,
green onions and radishes, pasca and cozonacies.
the past, on the night of the Resurrection, the virgins fired in the
cemetery to bring light to the ancestors.
their return from the church, they all collide with red eggs and eat
ritually from the dishes on the table, then lie down.
Day is in the family. At lunchtime, a Easter meal is served, then
rest. From the second day of Easter, the games of the village are
Week. The lighted week.
this week, another period of religious and spiritual life begins in
Cincecimea, which lasts until Pentecost.
after Easter is called unclean or unpopular. It is a nonworking day.
is the Source of Healing.
is sanctified the little Aghiazma, which is shared with believers for
use in case of illness or trouble.
Tommy. Little Easter. The Passover of the Dead. The Passover of the
go to the cemetery offering: lamb, red eggs, cake and wine. The
priest sanctifies the tombs, and then the meal for the dead.
second month after Easter, prayers and sacrifices are made for the
souls of the dead.
is the Lightened Week.
(Ispas). Heroes Day.
takes place on Thursday, the 40th day after the Lord's Resurrection.
The heroes of the people are mentioned at the Divine Liturgy. Once,
the families that had dead heroes, they carried alms to the church,
which were sanctified by the priest and shared with the poor. Pupils
attend school celebrations in honor of the heroes.
is considered a saint or a patron of the house. Leaves and flowers
are picked and sanctified.
sowing season ends.
ears of lambs grow to be marked and recognized in the herd.
of the Holy Spirit. (Great Sunday Pentecost.)
takes place 10 days after Ascension, Sunday.
many villages Nedeia is organized this day.
Holy Trinity is celebrated on the Monday after Pentecost.
is a nonworking day.