Historical heritage in Bretea Română - Hațeg Country - Pădureni Land

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Historical heritage in Bretea Română

Hațeg Country > Bretea Română
1. Archeological discoveries

• BĂŢĂLAR - At the border of the village, in the point called fermă, towards Streisingeorgiu, 400 m east of the locality, some Roman ruins (villa rustica) were discovered. The rugs contained mosaic for the paviment and many tiles.
• BERCU - Prehistoric vestiges were discovered at several points.
At Vircolin point located at the border of the village, 400 m east of the village, ceramic materials belonging to the Wietenberg culture were discovered. To the east of Vircolin, artifacts from the Neolithic and the Bronze Age were discovered in the field on the left bank of the river.
• ROMANIAN BRUTE - A Roman inscription was found in the commune's village.
• BRETEA STREIULUI - At the border of the village there were found lithic (stone) carved materials. Between the CFR Plopi Passage and the road to Bretea Romana, south of DN 66, in the Grumeda point, ceramics belonging to the Neolithic and Wietenberg culture were discovered.
• COVRAGIU - Ceramic materials belonging to the Cotofeni culture were discovered to the west of the locality.
• GÎNŢAGA - On a plateau above the Strei, on both sides of the road that descends from Gintaga towards the passage to Plopi in the place called Dimbuleu, a settlement belonging to the Cotofeni culture was discovered. Wietenberg ceramic materials are also located in the same place. At 4 km from the village, on the left bank of the valley, a Dacian settlement was discovered.
• MACEU - In this village were found medieval vestiges, here a wooden chapel.
• RUŞI - At the border of the village, north of the village, archaeological traces of Roman times were discovered.
• VELCARS - Here is a coin from Dyrrachium.
• GOOD CHRISTMAS - Here is a discovery of prehistoric objects made of gold. To the village of Vâlcelele Bune, in 1866, a treasure was made up of drachmas issued in Dyrrachium (370 pieces are in the collections of the Museum of Dacian and Romanian Civilization in Deva). At the southern end of the Vilceluta hamlet, on the road that comes from Boşorod, Roman ceramics were discovered.

During the medieval period, the history of the villages of Bretea Romana commune with the other localities in Hateg Country and in the neighboring areas. Even though most of them are documented only in the 14th-14th centuries, their existence is much older.

The Bretea Română locality, situated on the lower course of Streia, on the right bank, is documented in 1453, though it may be mentioned much earlier in connection with Bretea Streiului (formerly Bretea Ungureasca). In 1453, Bretea Română, along with several villages in Hațeg Country belonged to Deva fortress. Bretea Streiului (formerly Bretea Ungurească) is located on the left bank of Streiu, on its lower course, north of the city of Hațeg. The locality is documented in 1332 when, a Ladislau, the "Berecce" parish priest, appears in the accounts of papal dijma. The village belonged to the royal citadel of Hațeg, from which it was taken and given by King Gregory Bethlen before 1398. In 1406, the locality and the customs are under the rule of John, the son of Gregory Bethlen, the lady in the royal court.

2. Historical records

The village of Bățălar, located on the lower course of Streia, on the right bank, is documented in 1453 as "Rachaler" (Bachaler) depending on the city of Deva. In 1458 it is mentioned that belonging to Hațeg district, in the possession of the noble family of Bretea.

Covragiu is located on the right bank of the Strei and is documented in 1453 under the name "Kwred" and belonged to the Deva fortress, because in 1458 it belonged to the Haţeg district.The village of Gintaga is located on the upper course of Streia, on the right bank of the river, not far from Hateg.

The first documentary attestation dates back to 1410. In 1426 Iuga, "Ganchaga", appears on a list of king's men for the village Dumbrăvita. Probably also John the son of Simion, de Gonczhaza, "king of man in 1453 for the rulers of Sălașu de Sus at the streams of Streiu, was also a member of the Gintaga family, a village that seems to have a a special situation to the neighboring ones.

On the lower course of Streiu, to the west of the river, near Bretea Streiului is the village of Maceu. The village is mentioned for the first time in a document in 1446 when Stoja de Maczesd appears as a neighbor of the Cincis princes, the village of Maceu being bordered by Cincisul on the peaks of the hills separating Cerna Streia. The Ocolişul Mare is documented in 1337 and is located at the source of a tributary to the left of the Strei, which joins the river near Strei village.

Plopi and Ruşi villages are attested in 1453.

The Ruşi locality is located on the left bank of the lower course of Strei, between the villages of Bretea and Strei.
The villages of Vâlcelele Bune and Vâlcele are attested in 1453, being situated on the sloping Strei River, at the foot of the Sureanu Mountains. At that time, the two villages belonged to Deva, because in 1458 it was part of Hateg district.

The most important event of the sec. XVIII-th sec of Transylvania was the uprising of Horea, from 1784.
The first villages in Hunedoara county, which joined the border regiments in the summer of 1784, were Gintaga and Vâcelecele, their example being followed by the villages of Vâlcele, Batalari, Boşorod, Singeorz Valley, Ocolişul Mic, Chitid, Plopi. All these villages signed for the border regiments in Hateg. Against these villages, as well as those of Alba Iulia, the authorities will take measures that led to the cancellation of the military conscription, which contributed decisively to the outbreak of the Uprising of Horea in early November of 1784.

On 7 November 1784, the rebellious peasants prey the noble courts in the villages of Bretea Românească and Bretea Ungurească, only in Bretea Românească the number of those enrolled on the list of damages amounts to 18, plus the reformed church. Among the noble families were Kendeffi, Csongradi, Nalaczi, Tordai and even Nicholas Mara. In Covragiu they devastated the courts of Francisc Farkas. The ruins and courtyards of the nobles in Ruşi and Bățălar were raided.

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