Historical heritage in Densuș - Hațeg Country - Pădureni Land

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Historical heritage in Densuș

Hațeg Country > Densuș
1. Ovidiu Densușianu
Ovidiu Densușeanu, statue
Ovid Aron Densuşianu (born 29 December 1873, Făgăraş - June 9, 1938, Bucharest) was a philologist, linguist, folklorist, literary historian and Romanian poet, a member of the Romanian Academy and a professor at the University of Bucharest.
Ovid Densuşianu is born in Făgăraş. Ovid was the son of Aron Densuşianu, poet and literary critic, professor of Latin and Romanian literature at the University of Iaşi and Elena, born Circa, of Aromanian origin. Ovid Densuşianu had a whole descendant of scholars. Being part of the Densuşianu family. Aaron and Nicholas Densuşianu, the author of the prehistoric Dacia, were the sons of the Densus, Bizantius Pop and Sofia.
He studied in Paris under the guidance of Professor Gaston Paris French medieval texts. He takes his doctorate with a philological study on a 14th century French text: Der Roman from Comtesse d'Anion by Jean Maillart.
He is provisionally appointed at the Department of History of Romanian Language and Literature at the University of Bucharest, 1897-1901, where he opens the first course with a lesson on "Object and Methodology of Philology". He becomes the holder of the Department of Roman Philology with a special look at the Romanian language, from 1901 until the end of his life. He published in 1898 the Bulletin "Romanian Philology Studies" and in 1901 he published in Paris the fundamental work Histoire de la langue roumaine, volume I, Les origines, in which there are collected extensive information on the formation and evolution of the Romanian language. He is elected a correspondent member of the Romanian Academy. In 1905 he is awarded the "Bibesco" Prize of the Linguistics Society of Paris. He establishes the Philology Society in Bucharest, where he presents linguistic communications and will later publish it in the Philological Society Bulletin. Together with I.-A. Candrea, publishes the Etymological Dictionary of Romanian. Latin Elements (A - can). He deals with the spelling of the Romanian language, informing the Academy of his views on the norms of the literary language and in 1913 he founded the Institute of Philology and Folklore. He holds a number of lectures on French symbolism during the period 1914-1916 at the University. 1918 becomes an active member of the Romanian Academy, where he will hold the reception speech of the Latin School in Romanian language and literature. Barbu Delavrancea.

1923 is elected Honorary Member of the Ethnography Society and a year later becomes a member of the Linguistics Society of Paris. Establishes a new magazine, "Gray and Soul" (1923-1928), publication of the Institute of Philology and Folklore.
He dies on 8 June 1938, being buried at the Bellu Cemetery in Bucharest. Volume II, Le seizième siècle, from Histoire de la langue roumaine appears.
2. Sfântul Nicolae Church in Densuș
Sfântul Nicolae Church or St. Nicholas Church is an Orthodox church in Densuş, Hunedoara County, one of the oldest Byzantine rites in Romania built in the 13th century. Since 1991 it has been on the list of monuments proposed to enter the UNESCO heritage.  Nicolae Iorga called the church "unmatched in all Romania". The church is placed on the list of historical monuments in Hunedoara County under the code HD-II-m-A-03307.
St. Nicholas Church in Densuș was built on the ruins of an antique building (4th century). On the square (about 6 x 6 m), the nave is pierced by a tower around which there is a narrow space covered with a supporting vault.
Access to St. Nicholas Church, indication >

To the east is a deep semicircular apse, both inside and outside, with a large diaconic on its southern side. The roof of the whole building is made of stone slabs. Additional annexes were added to the southern side in the 19th century. XIV-XV. Built from the Roman stones formed from the ruins of nearby Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the church has a strange appearance, but it does not hide the stylistic footprints of the late Romanesque. The valuable fragments of mural painting dating back to 1443, the work of a team of masters headed by Ștefan, one of the first known Romanian painters, show close ties to the Wallachian period paintings.

Short history
The Church of Saint Hierarch Nicholas is a place of worship with a strange appearance, built from lithic pieces, brought from the former Roman capital of Dacia, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, consisting of a square nave and a semicircular closure apse; On the inside, four pillars, each made up of two overlaid Roman altars, describe a central pillar above which a tower with four distinct sections is high. On the south side of the altar was added a semi-cylindrical curved diaconic; The late ones are also the western pronaos, as well as the southern corridor of the ship, today ruined. The secular historiography pleads for the belonging of the building, to the great family of the Romanian edifices from the 12th-14th centuries, indicating the noble Haţegani Mănjina as founders. Taking a 1775 hypothesis from an Austrian army officer, Sylvester Joseph von Hohenhausen, church historiography claims that the home was originally a funerary monument built in the memory of General Longinus (2nd century), but proclaimed in the fourteenth centuries ; Abandoned after 568, it would have been reused as a church after the mid-nineteenth century. Covered with a layer of lime between the years 1566 and 1720, the interior frescoes are the work of three different painters in style and artistic formation; The master craftsman, Ștefan, the signer of the 1443 painting, is considered an exponent of the South Carpathian artistic ambience developed around the Curtea de Arges Monastery.

Currently, the church at Densuş has two patrons, "Saint Hierarch Nicholas" and "Saint Prophet Jeremiah". Its duplication - it is not known what was the original one - has to be linked to one of the major works to strengthen the sanctuary, which could have the character of a rectification, thus motivating the replacement of the first spiritual patron of the church with another. But in this case, the renovation can only be linked to the local Musinesti family, documented since the 13th century. The edifice is inscribed on the list of Romanian historical monuments (HD-II-m-A-03307).

The interior painting of the Densuș church
The graceful painting of the church, severely damaged by the time, has received, since 1871, special attention from the specialists. In the scientific circuit it entered after 1905. On the occasion of the archaeological excavations and the 1961-1962 dissections, several scenes, covered until then with a thick lime, were revealed. The stylistic analysis of the ensemble allows to highlight the presence of three painter craftsmen, two of them working - it seems - concurrently. The master, the author of the paintings of the entire altar, of the first two upper naval registers and the icon of the patron saint, wrote his name on the left side above entrance to the church: "Here painted Ștefan", inscription completed with another, also in Slavonic under the window on the south-eastern side of the altar: "... in the year 6952 [1443 nn] October 23 was painted [the church with the patron] Saint Nicholas ... the lady and girls ... Amen ".

The monumentality of the vision of the painted characters, the firm but generous drawing, and especially the attitude, the garnments and the typology of the representation of the hierarchies in the altar, imply the conclusion that Master Ștefan was an exponent of South-Carpathian medieval art, formed in the pictorial tradition of the Basarabilor Monastery at Curtea de Argeș. Another painter, perhaps Ștefan's help, certainly belongs to the local artistic environment, he is the author of the lower register of paintings. The fifteenth-century mural ensemble seems to be a donation of the Mankina family, often mentioned in the documents of the day, both in connection with the convocation of court chairs and in the context of the endless anti-Ottoman campaigns undertaken by the Hungarian kingdom.

Despite the disappearance of scenes, the mural decoration that once embellished the interior of the church can be reconstituted in four registers, in an original layout of scenes and characters. The two upper phases contain larger figures, compared to the third ones; Much smaller, they correspond, two by two, to a single figure in the upper frieze. According to the same "descrescendo", the saints in the register of the wall, fully represented, are distributed three at the right of the four in the immediately superior alignment. From the point of view of the composition, the figures on the two upper rows of the northern side of the ship are taumaturgists, each holding a container on the left and one teaspoon on the right. On the southern side, at the same level, a queen of the cross is painted, followed by a male figure with a diadem (probably "Holy Emperors Constantine and Elena") and a martyr with a crown on his head. The next line distinguishes the face of a saint fighter, with an ovoid helmet, corresponding to medieval armor, then a young martyr with a crown. In the niche above the door, there is the bust of the "Mother Glykophilousa" (Mother of God holding the Child with his head on her face) and of "Saint Hierarch Nicholas" in the archpriest quarters.
"Saint Apostle Bartholomew" carrying his skin on the stick.

In the altar, the painting was preserved satisfactory only at the level of the lower register of the walls; Impressive are the figures of "Saints Arsenie and Athanasius". The central area of ​​the vault is reserved for the "Platiterei" (consecrated image of the Virgin Mary with the throne), framed by archangels and prophets; In the south-eastern part of the country there is a bearded and white-haired character, possibly a prophet. The paintings on the pillars, probably done by a local popular painter, portray, in a naive but glamorous way, a picture of the "Holy Marine", tormenting a demon, a popular-artistic representation of the "Holy Trinity", the "Holy Apostle Bartholomew" carrying his skin on the stick.

Between 1566 and 1720, frescoes were covered. Well represented before, Slavic and Romanian sgraffiti of this period are missing. Based on this finding, the chronological interval in which the cult site would have served, in parallel, both the Orthodox community and the reformed community of the local, Protestant and Magyarized nuns at the end of the medieval period, can be established. According to a document dated January 20, 1702, in 1702, the nobles of the Densuş, Ciula Mare, Peşteana, Răchitova and Ostrov hațegan villages laid the foundations of a local Calvinist parish, served by the Hungarian pastor Tokai Istvan. He also had the subordinates of Peșteana, Tuştea and Ciula Mare. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the ancient edifice was taken over by the UnitedChurch, being registered as such by the ecclesiastical censuses of the years 1733 and 1750. This confessional status and kept until the large religious movement of the monk Sophronius of Cioara, when, according to the data provided by the Buccow catagory of 1761-1762, the church returned to the  Orthodox community.
3. Reformed church in Peșteana
Biserica Reformata din Pesteana
Biserica Reformata Pesteana
The Reformed Church of Peşteana sec. XVI-XVII
Commune Densuș, Hunedoara County

Besides the other major attractions in the village of Peşteana, Densuş commune (Măştina de la Pesteană, Church of St. Elias, XIV century, Hategan village museum), we can visit a beautiful and old church, apparently abandoned.

The church dates back to the 16th and 17th centuries and is listed on the list of historical monuments in Hunedoara County.

You can visit it at any time, it is located right on the road that will lead to the Swamp of the Peşteana (Tăul fără fund).
4. Other targets
Historic Mansion Densuș
Historic Mansion Densus
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