Historical heritage in Vețel - Hațeg Country - Pădureni Land

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Historical heritage in Vețel

Pădureni Land > Vețel
Neolithic settlement from Mintia
The oldest traces of the Mureş Valley, from the current Vețel commune, date back to the Stone Age. In the northwest of Mintia, at the eighth kilometer of the road connecting Deva to Ilia, a Neolithic settlement was discovered in 1968.

Research on the construction of the thermal power plant led to the discovery of several surface dwellings, ceramic materials and objects of stone and bone spread over a half-km area. The dwellings were laid on a dark layer at a depth Of 1,30-1,50 m from the current ironing level.The distance between them ranges from 2 to 35 m, indicating a neolithic settlement of the scattered type.The walls of the dwellings were made of beams and hills on which they were Fixed knitted by wires covered with a layer of clay mixed with straw and chaff, 10-15 cm thick. Inside and inside the houses were discovered fragments of vessels with the bulging body and the top of the body, made of brown- Red, brick and black. Small pots made of fine ceramic, ornamented with incised bands or short lines, and a zoomorphic figurine were also identified.

From the archeological escavations came 600 pieces of lithic: scraper, chiseled blades of various sizes, stone-cut stone-type holes with a holes of holes, a fragment of the grinder, holes, etc. Starting from the characteristics of ceramics and objects of stone and bone, Liviu Marghitan embraces the Neolithic settlement from Mintia in the category of the Turdaş type.

Dacian vestiges
Archaeological research has shown the existence of some dwelling traces in the Mintia area dated to the pre-Roman period. In the 1929-1930 and 1966 campaigns in the civilian settlement and in the Roman castles in Micia, the late Dacian ceramics identified at the level of development of the native population.
The hand-painted black paste was decorated with buttons, veiled lines and incised girdles. The presence in the settlement of Micia of some Dacian cups, which does not raise any doubts about their ethnicity, in coexistence with Roman ceramics is the proof of the continuity of the indigenous population. Probably, during the construction of the castle, the Romans used the native population for different work.

Historical monuments
The Mintia Wooden ChurchThe wooden church in Mintia was placed in the middle of the orthodox cemetery, bordered to the east at the Orthodox cemetery 80 meters by the railway, and west on the road to the Mures River. The church is listed with number 1459 on the list of historical monuments approved by a decision of the Council of Ministers of 1950.
The year of construction of the cult site, the dimensions of 11,50 m in length, 4,50 m in width and 4,80 m in height, is not known precisely. It is supposed to have been brought from a village in the Apuseni Mountains, around the year 1768. It was mounted at Mintia on the site of an old wooden church of worship.
Most wooden churches in the area were built by foreign craftsmen following orders and mounted where they needed Orthodox communities. In 1964, priest Gheorghe Caragea shows that 1957 preservation works were carried out in the amount of 4000 lei, of which 2000 came from the parish fund and the rest from the Department of Cults. The church was built of oak beams placed one above the other, the ceiling of the interior walls were lined with fir wood. The ceiling was entirely vaulted, and the body of the church was shingled. Currently, the church is exposed in the Museum of the Romanian Peasant in Bucharest, in a covered space that did not allow the roof and the tower to be kept.

On the southern wall, linked to "Doomsday", appears the "Crucifixion" scene, a symbol of the supreme sacrifice made by the Savior for the forgiveness of the sins of all men. The moment of the "Sacrifice" is reinforced by the sacrifice of two Seraphim, alluding to the praise of the sacrifice, when we sing "Trisaghionul" (Holy God, Holy Holy, Holy, without Death, mercy us). Also as an allusion to the sacrifice is the animal carried on the shoulder by one of the two characters of the "Resurrection of the Dead". On the left of the painting "Crucifixion" and above the stage with the Apostles Peter and Paul are the pictures of the holy Nedelea and Varvara.
Saint Nedelea is standing in an imperial costume with a cross in the right hand and a short marble and a crown on his head. She wears earrings and has beautiful, feminine features. A worthy point to be revealed is represented in the painting of "Sacred Things" of the satirical accents, among those who are tormented by the flames of hell, being depicted by the Zlarar (the representative of feudalism), the marauder, the prostitute and the sinful priest. This is the oldest representation of this type in the Romanian medieval painting.
Reformed Church of  Mintia
Reformed Church in Mintia
The wall church of "Saint Nicholas" in Leşnic, Veţel commune, Hunedoara County, was built at the end of the 14th century.
The Church of Leşnic was first mentioned by I.D. Ştefănescu in the book "La peinture religieuse en Valachie et en Transylvania depuis originale jusqu au XlX-eme siecle", one of the oldest monuments of Hunedoara. The systematic research of the painting ensemble from the cult was done in 1961, through the specialists of the Historical Monuments Directorate, during the inventory of the monuments from the Hunedoara region. The research team included architect Eugen Vasiliu and archaeologist Nicolae Puscaru. In 1962, Vasile Dragut completed and corrected the iconographic scheme presented by I.D. Stefanescu. Other research was made in 1973 by Eleonora Cincheza-Buculei. Explaining the mourning: "Oh, my brother, how much I have suffered in the foreign land for my sins." The very large space assigned to "The Last Judgment" is due to the founder's emphasis on the idea of ​​sin and sincere repentance, so that he and Those who have sinned like him, receive forgiveness in the "Day of Judgment."

Diversite scenes dated according to the stylistic elements were made in 1772, because then a wooden "proscomidiar" was made. The structure of the scenes on the eastern wall is complex. Above the royal doors is depicted the "Trinity" according to the Catholic iconographic pattern. The Father and the Son seated on the throne hold in their hands an earthly globe stamped with a cross and above the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. Two angels are kneeling on both sides of the "Holy Trinity", then there are three medallions of prophets, and in the lower register two medallions with the symbol of the evangelists. Also in the form of medallions are depicted scenes of "Thomas's doubt", "Changing the face", "Circumcision" and "Entering into the church". In the lower part of the walls, on both sides of the opening from the altar, four scenes are played. To the north is the birth of Christ and Baptism in the upper register of Saint Paraschiva and Healing of the Blind, and in the Lower Registry "Assumption of the Virgin" and "Entrance of the Virgin Mary to the Church".

The paintings in the altar are the work of another craftsman. The bolt, divided into two, has the oranges to the east, and to the west, "God the Father" and angels. On the wall, from left to right, are depicted Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianz, Jesus the Archbishop blessing, John Chrysostom and Archdeacon Stefan. The figures in the altar are of great size. Nowadays, due to degradation, only the lines that outline the figures of the saints are visible. The author of the paintings from the altar is, according to Vasile Dragut, Nicolae of Pitești. The hypothesis is based on the similarity between the iconography from Leşnic and that of Gurasada, executed in 1765 by the painters Ioan of Deva and Nicolae of Piteşti. The Church of Leşnic remains an evocative page in the history of Transylvanian Romans in the 15th century.
Vetel Commune, Sat Boia Barzii, Wooden Church Descent of the Holy Spirit
The wooden churches of Muncelu Mic, Muncelu Mare, Boia Bârzii and Runcu Mic.
Documents and oral tradition highlight the importance of the wood architecture in the past of the romanians from Hunedoara. Along with the historic historical sources, wooden buildings, especially churches, are testified. Their research has been in the past 50 years for art historians. The material published so far is low and time has inevitably led to the disappearance of many testimonies.

The ecclesiastical monuments in the villages of Veţel commune located in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains indicate the poor social and economic state of the communities. The low proportions, the sobriety of the exterior and the isolation made the wooden churches in Muncelu Mare, Muncelu Mic, Boia Bârzii and Runcu Mic to come relatively late to the attention of the researchers. The lack of proper legislation on their conservation and the poverty of locals have led to distortions. The roof of the "sieve" (shingle) was replaced with tile or sheet.
The four wooden churches in the villages belong to the commune of Veţel, are made of beams that are placed horizontally and joined to the ends.
The outer coat is made of shingle, the joining and fixing of beams, skeins and shingles was made by traditional methods, specific to woodcutters, without the intervention of the means of urban origin. Even the tools used were wooden carvings. In principle, all churches consist of a tent (a narthex) and a ship (nave), separated by a transverse wall. The nave is separated from the iconostasis altar or the iconostasis.

These elements are ordered from the west to the east, giving the church a development and a longitudinal structure. Inside, the narthex and porch were rendered. In the ceiling of the porch of the church in Muncelu Mare there was an opening that provided access to the bell tower. In the nave was made a longitudinal cylindrical vault, and in the altar a similar vault. The cylindrical bolt presupposes a contamination with stone architecture from the Roman period, its influence being not excluded, because in the ambiance of the churches some examples of cylindrical vaults were preserved, for example in Moldova at the Saint Nicholas Church in Rădăuţi.
The castle of the Austrian general Gyulay Ferencz
The castle was built in the seventeenth century by Gyulay Ferencz, an Austrian general, the only child of the noble Hungarian Gyulay Ignacz. Ferencz raised the mansion instead of a smaller building. The family of the general then ruled all of Mintia, to which he added the title Marosnemeti, from the Hungarian "nemet" which means "German."
Several descendants of the Gyulay family lived in Castel. In 1806, the documents mention that the estate of Mintia was mastered by Gyulay Istvan. There followed Albert and K.R Gyulay. Countess Constance Gyulay de Mintia, who married Ladislau Kuun of Osdola, inherited the field with her brother Ludovic. In 1848 the Gyulay family fled to Cluj, and after the revolution, only Ludovic, Ladislau Kuun and his wife, Constance, and their children, Irene and Geza, returned to Mintia.
Ludovic was the last heiress of the Gyulay family. He wrote over 100 diaries about the mansion and about Mintia. All are kept at the History Museum in Cluj-Napoca ". Ludovic Gyulay changed the building in 1834, giving him the form it has today.
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The castle of the Austrian general Gyulay Ferencz
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